advertising, television and video


advertising, television and video
   Advertising is the means by which commercial values or messages are conveyed to the public. Two main broadcast forms exist: spot advertising and sponsorship. Spot advertising refers to the purchase of short slots between programmes while sponsorship focuses on programmes with which commercial concerns wish to become associated. Spot advertising is usually used to sell specific products, such as soap powder, while sponsorship is the preferred method for developing or creating a corporate’s public persona. As national advertising rates are expensive, because of the large audiences delivered, huge importance is put on the placing and production of the advert. This often leads to a situation where the advert production costs per minute are more than those of the surrounding programmes.
   While advertising is the regular means by which the US networks are funded, those in Europe have, until the 1990s, mostly relied on non-commercial means such as the television licence fee in Britain. Television advertising was first introduced into Britain in 1955 with ITV. Fears were initially expressed about the possible effect of advertisements on programme content. Advertising in a sponsored form was therefore prohibited in favour of spot advertising. This was seen as introducing a form of editorial policy into television, similar to newspapers, where the advertisements were kept separate from the content. The number of adverts, the content of adverts, their position and their separation from programmes was controlled and regulated by the ITA (forerunner of ITC).
   In recent years in Britain more advertising-backed channels have appeared (Channel 4, Channel 5 and BSkyB), which, providing new outlets for advertisers, have also fragmented the large audiences that broadcasting delivers. There has also been a change in regulation. Some prohibitions have gone while new ones have been introduced; for example, forms of sponsorship are now allowed, enabling Wella to ‘bring you’ Friends, while others, like tobacco sponsorship, have now been completely banned. Advertisers have also faced a ‘revolt’ by the viewer as they use new viewing technologies, such as remote controls, to miss out advertisements. Thus viewers can easily channel hop (‘zapping’), when adverts are on, or can fast forward through adverts on video recordings (‘zipping’). Advertisers have responded by making adverts more entertaining and interesting, often with an ongoing narrative. They have even made it possible to watch or ‘scan’ the advert viewed quickly on fast forward.
   Further reading
    Schudson, M. (1993) Advertising: The Uneasy Persuasion, London: Routledge.
   PAUL RIXON

Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture . . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Television and Radio — ▪ 1995 Introduction       Dominant trends in television and radio in 1994 included continuing globalization of services and programming and increased competition between cable and telephone companies. The industry s battle cry was expand or exit …   Universalium

  • American Federation of Television and Radio Artists — Infobox Union| name= AFTRA country= United States affiliation= AFL CIO, IFJ members= 80,000 full name= American Federation of Television and Radio Artists native name= founded= current= head= dissolved date= dissolved state= merged into= office=… …   Wikipedia

  • Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission — CRTC may also stand for Cathode Ray Tube Controller. . History The CRTC was originally known as the Canadian Radio Television Commission. In 1976, jurisdiction over telecommunications services, most of which were then delivered by monopoly common …   Wikipedia

  • List of Top Gear broadcasters and video releases — This is a list of Top Gear broadcasters and video releases. Broadcasters Australia As well as the condensed BBC World edition being available on pay television, Australian free to air broadcaster SBS commenced the airing of the abridged BBC Two… …   Wikipedia

  • advertising, influence of —    Advertising is used for a variety of purposes: to attempt to persuade consumers to buy goods, change the image of a commodity or service, induce brand loyalty, encourage retailers to stock particular products, sell political ideas, or keep… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • Television content rating systems — give viewers an idea of the suitability of a television program for children or adults. Many countries have their own television rating system and each country s rating process may differ due to local priorities. Programs are rated by either the… …   Wikipedia

  • Television crew — positions are derived from those of film crew, but with several differences. Pre production Everything before the shooting of the film is known as the pre production stage. People involved in this stage include the director, the producer, the… …   Wikipedia

  • Television in Greece and Cyprus — Television broadcasting in Greece began in 1966, with the first network, EPT (Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi) broadcasting out of Athens, as a state owned monopoly. Original broadcasts were in black and white. A second network, YENED, opened in… …   Wikipedia

  • Television in Greece — Television broadcasting in Greece began in 1966 and this was preceded in 1951 by statute 1663 permitting television broadcasting.[1] Contents 1 History 1.1 1960s 1970s 1.2 1980s …   Wikipedia

  • Television broadcasting in Australia — began on the 16 September 1956 in black and white at TCN 9 in Sydney, and has since expanded to include a broad range of public, commercial, community, subscription, narrowcast and amateur stations across the country.Colour television was… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.